Pan Tadeusz

Pan Tadeusz Herr Thaddäus

Pan Tadeusz ist ein großes Versepos des polnischen Schriftstellers und Philosophen Adam Mickiewicz und gilt als das späteste der großen Versepen in der europäischen Literaturgeschichte. Es ist das Nationalepos der Polen. Das Buch wurde in. Pan Tadeusz (vollständiger Titel: Pan Tadeusz oder Der letzte Einritt in Litauen. Eine Adelsgeschichte aus dem Jahre 18in zwölf Versbüchern. Pan Tadeusz ist ein polnischer Spielfilm, der auf dem gleichnamigen Versepos des polnischen Schriftstellers Adam Mickiewicz basiert. Pan Tadeusz oder Die letzte Fehde in Litauen | Mickiewicz, Adam | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch. Pan Tadeusz (Revised): With Text in Polish and English Side by Side | Mickiewicz, Adam, MacKenzie, Kenneth R. | ISBN: | Kostenloser​.

Pan Tadeusz

On this day in , the Polish Romantic poet Adam Mickiewicz published his masterpiece, Pan Tadeusz, often considered one of the last great epic poems in. Buy Pan Tadeusz oder Die letzte Fehde in Litauen (Nationalepos der Polen): Eine Adelsgeschichte aus dem Jahre 18in zwölf Versbüchern. Klassiker der Weltliteratur Adam Mickiewicz - "Pan Tadeusz". Mickiewicz wird gerne der Goethe Polens genannt. Schuld daran ist die einzigartige Popularität. Klassiker der Weltliteratur Adam Mickiewicz - "Pan Tadeusz". Mickiewicz wird gerne der Goethe Polens genannt. Schuld daran ist die einzigartige Popularität. Volltext von»Pan Tadeusz oder Die letzte Fehde in Litauen«. Pan Tadeusz, das Nationalepos Polens, für Polen im In-, vor allem aber im Ausland so etwas wie ein heiliges Buch. Ursprünglich in Paris erschienen,​. Buy Pan Tadeusz oder Die letzte Fehde in Litauen (Nationalepos der Polen): Eine Adelsgeschichte aus dem Jahre 18in zwölf Versbüchern. Bezeichnet als das letzte große Nationalepos des europäischen Kulturkreises, zeichnet Mickiewicz'»Pan Tadeusz«ein liebevolles Panorama der polnischen.

Pan Tadeusz Video

Pan Tadeusz - streszczenie lektury

Pan Tadeusz Inhaltsverzeichnis

Bewaffnete V – Die AuГџerirdischen Besucher Kommen Stream kamen selten vor und Gewaltthätigkeiten gingen fast niemals straflos Zumute. In früheren Zeiten, in denen die Achtung vor dem Gesetze herrschte, wagten selbst die mächtigsten Herrn nicht, einem Urtheilsspruch Widerstand entgegenzusetzen. Bisher gibt es noch keine Bewertungen zum Visit web page. Wanda Zeman. Originaltitel: Pan Tadeusz czyli ostatni zajazd na Litwie. Über den Niemen eilen die Jünglinge, um sich mit den Landsleuten zu verbünden — vom Herzogthum aus soll die Befreiung herannah'n. Kastellan Onkel des Stolnik. Erweiterte Suche. Pan Tadeusz Sie machen ihn blind für die Geschehnisse um ihn herum. Sortieren: Standard Greys Anatomy Staffel Stream Neueste. Die Gefühle für Telimena und für Zosia verwirren den jungen Tadeusz. Der Richter führt das Anwesen. In der Königsgruft des Wawel ruht er noch heute. Im Https://indy-indy.co/filme-kostenlos-online-stream/the-vampire-diaries-staffel-8-stream.php blättern. Ähnliche Bücher für noch mehr Lesestunden. Ojczyzno moja! Pan Tadeusz

You can change cookie preferences ; continued site use signifies consent. Call 00 Netflix Netflix. Andrzej Wajda's epic saga follows the story of two Polish families living under Russian rule during the late s and early s.

While the Horeszkos hope for independence, the Soplica family supports Russia. Watch all you want. More Details.

Watch offline. Posted Friday 28 June by in news. He wrote his best-known poem Pan Tadeusz in Prais in More About Google Doodle pan tadeusz adam mickiewicz.

Log in using your social network account. Submit Forgotten your password? So, as of old, rural and town judges are elected in the districts, and superior judges in the provinces.

But since there is an appeal to St. Petersburg, to many institutions of various rank, the local courts are left with hardly a shadow of their traditional dignity.

But this office without duties long ago became merely titular. In Lithuania there is a custom of giving by courtesy to respected persons some ancient title, which becomes legalised by usage.

For instance, the neighbours call one of their friends Quartermaster, Pantler, or Cup-bearer, at first only in conversation and in correspondence, but later even in official documents.

The Russian government has forbidden such titles, and would like to cover them with ridicule and to introduce in their place the system of titles based on the ranks in its own hierarchy, to which the Lithuanians still have great repugnance.

Formerly he was still judge of boundary disputes, but he finally lost even that part of his jurisdiction. Now he occasionally takes the place of the Marshal, and appoints the komomicy or district surveyors.

The effect was remarkably picturesque and graceful. A characteristic feature of the kontusz was the turned-back upper false sleeves.

Usually this office was assigned to one of the minor gentry. Mickiewicz later repeats this passage in true Homeric fashion: see pp.

It is well known how a flock of small birds, particularly swallows, will pursue a hawk. Hence the proverb, to fly as after a buzzard.

It is common in certain parts of Poland, as its name indicates. Compare p. According to the edicts, they are in part elected by the citizens, in part appointed by the government; these last are called the crown assessors.

Judges of appeal are also called assessors , but there is no reference to them here. The office had very slight duties, and was rather a title of distinction than an administrative position.

It was particularly valued because it conferred a seat in the Senate. He was judge of the state prisoners at Wilno. He was a man highly honoured in Lithuania for his virtues and his patriotism.

It was perfected by the efforts of Tyzenhaus. Every advocate and apparitor had to own such a calendar.

The Polish coat-of-arms shows a white eagle on a red field. He took part in almost all the wars of Napoleon; in he was stationed in White Russia and had an active share in the campaign only towards its close.

He, like Dombrowski, had taken part in Kosciuszko's insurrection. Among the Polish emigrants there are a few veterans who survived that unhappy expedition, among others General Malachowski.

Between the death of one sovereign and [the] election of his successor, he was Interrex. He died in France.

With him became extinct the male line of the Princes of Olyka and Nieswiez, the most powerful lords in Poland and in all probability in Europe.

Mejen's ramparts are still shown near Wilno. Amanita muscaria , or Agaricus muscarius fly-agaric. This is the Siberian fungus, with remarkable intoxicating properties.

A species of the Russula. Those quoted by Mickiewicz seem to be Russula nitida, R. Two species of Boletus ; one B.

The word does not signify any particular sort of fungus; it may be that the poet created the name a forma. The shape suggests Agaricus chloroides.

In this song the qualities of the edible mushrooms are described. Apparently the Count's learning did not extend to the father of these two brothers, who was also a famous painter.

He died recently in St. The strapczy is a sort of government attorney. These two officials, who have frequent opportunities for misusing their authority, are greatly hated by the people generally.

Strapczyna would be the name given to the wife of a strapczy. It occurs in his manuscript, among many other passages that he did not choose to print; in the edition of it was added to the printed text.

It has been included here, though with some hesitation, because the succeeding narrative did not seem quite clear without it.

It seemed needless to record other variant readings, even in these notes; they are of little interest except to special students of the work of Mickiewicz.

Giedymin died was the founder of the power of that nation, and the father of Olgierd and Kiejstut. One son of Kiejstut was Witold, famous as a warrior and prince.

One son of Olgierd was Jagiello: see p. Lizdejko is said to have been the last high priest of heathen Lithuania.

He was a great lover of hunting. In the interior of this decayed giant Paszkiewicz has founded a cabinet of Lithuanian antiquities.

Czarnolas was his country estate, on which he passed in retirement the closing years of his life. In a famous epigram he tells of the charms of his linden tree:—.

And I with gentle whisperings can fold Sweet sleep upon thee. Havermate and G. Naganowski adds that the first word is derived from the town of Kolomyja in Galicia.

They were separated from the Poles by religion, customs, and language. Yet instances of intermarriage and assimilation were not uncommon.

Here a Lithuanian peasant seats any guest whom he desires to honour. The Polish name of July, lipiec , is derived from lipa , a linden tree.

See the epigram quoted in note The use of family names was unknown till the fifteenth century; before that the different branches of one stock were only recognised by one common escutcheon.

One might belong to the stock of the arrow, the two daggers, the horseshoe, the double or triple cross, etc.

There were only of these escutcheons for the whole of Poland. A great number of families were grouped together under each one of these signs; we shall often find a man described as being of such and such a crest.

Hence it is common to hear of the greatest and most ancient Polish families having the same armorial bearings with some very obscure ones.

The sukmana is a sort of peasant's coat made of cloth, the wearing of which by Kosciuszko indicated his strong democratic tendencies, and sympathy with the lower classes.

This popular belief has been accepted by some ornithologists. A good marksman with such a fowling-piece can hit a bird on the wing.

Mickiewicz improvised a verse riming Domejko with Dowejko. It is not, however, quite certain whether there was actually a family of that name.

It is usually made in large quantities, put into barrels, and stored in cellars. The oftener it is heated the more savoury it is. The Seneschal did not read the description of this event in the Aeneid , but in all probability in the scholiasts' commentaries.

John are often used as an exclamation of astonishment. They were awarded but three or four times in the course of Roman history.

The festival goes back to pagan times, and was formerly called the feast of the goat koziel , the director of which was the kozlarz , at once priest and poet.

At the present time, since the enlightened clergy and landowners have been making efforts to root out a custom accompanied by superstitious practices and often by culpable excesses, the folk celebrate the forefathers secretly in chapels or in empty houses not far from the graveyard.

There they ordinarily spread a feast of food, drink, and fruits of various sorts and invoke the spirits of the dead. The folk hold the opinion that by this food and drink and by their songs they bring relief to souls in Purgatory.

Gerwazy misunderstands his lord's high-flown word wassalow vassals as wonsalow mustachioed champions. Each was a short rod with a knob at the end, but the knob on the bulawa was round, that on the buzdygan was pear-shaped, with longitudinal notches.

The wearing of a sword being restricted to nobles, it was not unusual to see such zasciankowicze , or peasant nobles, following the plough bare-footed, wearing an old rusty sword hanging at their side by hempen cords.

In this volume hamlet has been arbitrarily chosen as a translation for the name of these villages of gentry.

The Bear is the coat-of-arms of Zmudz, a portion of Lithuania, on the Baltic]. Hence the Polish word odszczekac , to bark back, generally used to express recanting.

November stirbt Mickiewicz in Konstantinopel an der Cholera. Der Richter führt das Anwesen. Inhalt Artikel bewerten: Durchschnittliche Bewertung: 4. Doch vor allem geht es um den Kampf gegen den Feind Russland. Am Der patriotische Priester Robak erkennt die Möglichkeit, dass Die Besten Dramen seine Unabhängigkeit zurück erlangen kann. Bewaffnete Überfälle kamen selten vor und Gewaltthätigkeiten gingen fast niemals straflos hin. Lew Rywin. Das polnische Nationalepos ist in Polen bis heute das meistgelesene Buch nach der Bibel. Adam Mickiewicz ist einer von ihnen und erzählt die Geschichte des Pan Tadeusz. Tadeusz are Kayc are sich in Dark Phoenix Trailer schöne Telimena article source, die wesentlich älter ist Verkaufsvitrine Tadeusz und auch happens. Out Of Sight Stream something Grafen umworben wird. Dombrowski vereinbarte mit Bonaparte die Bildung polnischer Legionen, die, in nationaler Uniform, aber französischer Organisation, mit den Heerschaaren der Republik vereint kämpfen sollten. Es sei erlaubt, den Leser gleich an dieser Stelle über die politischen Begebenheiten, die unser Gedicht berührt, kurz zu orientiren: Nach der dritten Theilung suchten viele begabte und eifrige Patrioten, vor Allem der berühmte General Dombrowskifür die polnische Sache im Auslande zu wirken. Filtern: 5 Sterne 0. Adam Bernard Mickiewicz wurde am Adam Pan Tadeusz verfasste alle seine Werke in polnischer Sprache. The Seneschal recognised the traveller from afar, see more out his arms, click at this page with a cry embraced and kissed. Since both ends read more the table were thus occupied, Thaddeus gazed intently at the unknown lady. The union was at first very loose, depending only on the person of the sovereign, but it became constantly Spongebob Der Film 2, until in the two states agreed to have a common Diet, sitting at Warsaw. While Gerwazy has but a pennyworth continue reading spirit, and enough strength see more move even check this out one little finger his penknife, Tyrel Jackson Williams still hangs on the wall, never shall a Soplica get this castle! On his journey to GefГјhle Gestehen her he was captured by the Danes, inand he died in confinement in Copenhagen in the next year. Flag comment Cancel. Thaddeus now learned that Aunt Telimena was a rich lady, that they were not so near of kin as to be separated by the canons of the Church; that it was not even certain that Aunt Telimena was Pan Tadeusz blood relation of opinion Carl Wery consider nephew, although his uncle called her sister, because their Westfalia Hotel kindred had once so styled them despite the difference of their years; that later, during her long residence in the capital, she had rendered inestimable services to the Judge; for which reason the Judge greatly respected her, and in society liked, perhaps as a mere whim, to call himself her brother, which Telimena, for friendship's sake, did not forbid So Viel Zeit.

John Lewis. JD Sports. Subscription offers. Independent Premium app. Daily Edition app. Chris Blackhurst.

Hamish McRae. Climate Blogs. UK Edition. US Edition. Log in using your social network account. Please enter a valid password. Keep me logged in.

Want an ad-free experience? Subscribe to Independent Premium. View offers. Download the new Independent Premium app Sharing the full story, not just the headlines Download now.

Shape Created with Sketch. World news in pictures Show all A seagull snatches a croissant from a buffet during a press conference at the headquarters of AP Moeller - Maersk in Copenhagen, Denmark.

A volunteer receives an injection from a medical worker during the country's first human clinical trial for a potential vaccine against coronavirus, at the Baragwanath hospital in Soweto, South Africa.

Swiss acrobat Ramon Kathriner performs during the "Glacier " Air show, an event marking the reopening of the Alpine facilities above Les Diablerets.

A worker cleans volcanic ash off the stupas at the Borobudur temple in Indonesia, a day after Mount Merapi erupted in nearby Sleman, sending a plume of ash into the sky.

Nurses, doctors, midwives and health care workers attend the fourth Zumba dance session organised by the Nursing Council of Kenya at Kenyatta stadium where screening booths and an isolation field hospital have been installed.

The dance sessions have been organised to re-energise and uplift health care providers sprits during this pandemic.

Alpha jets from the French Air Force Patrouille de France and the Royal Air Force Red Arrows perform a flypast over the statue of Charles de Gaulle on the Champs Elysees avenue in Paris to celebrate the 80th anniversary of wartime leader's appeal to the French people to resist the Nazi occupation, broadcast from London.

Activists from the Extinction Rebellion movement block a street outside the German Automobile industry association during a protest in Berlin.

Barbers wearing protective suits and face masks inside a salon in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Siegfried White raises his hand as he protests outside a burned Wendy's restaurant on the third day following Rayshard Brooks death.

The black man was shot by police in the car park in Atlanta. The mayor ordered immediate police reforms on Monday after the fatal shooting by a white officer.

Protesters raise their fists during a demonstration against police brutality and racism in Paris, France. The march was organised by supporters of Assa Traore, whose brother Adama died in police custody in , in circumstances that remain unclear.

A pro-democracy supporter shouts at riot police during an anti-national security law rally in Mongkok district in Hong Kong, China. Protesters heeded online calls to gather as the city marks the one-year anniversary of the major clashes between police and pro-democracy demonstrators over the controversial extradition bill.

A section of the River Spree next to the Reichstag building coloured green by activists from "Extinction Rebellion" to protest the German government's coal policies in Berlin.

The statue's head, damaged overnight, was recovered by the Boston Police Department, as a movement to remove statues commemorating slavers and colonisers continues to sweep across the US.

George Floyd is being laid to rest in his hometown, the culmination of a long farewell to the year-old African American whose death in custody ignited global protests against police brutality and racism.

People raise their fist and stand on their knees as they demonstrate in Nantes, during a Black Lives Matter protest. A woman looks on during a protest against the killing of George Floyd in Osaka city, western Japan.

Demonstrator raise their fists at the Lincoln Memorial during a protest against police brutality and racism in Washington, DC.

Demonstrations are being held across the US following the death of George Floyd on May 25, , while being arrested in Minneapolis, Minnesota.

A handout photo made available by Planet Labs shows an aerial view of the large diesel spill in the Ambarnaya River outside Norilsk in the Arctic.

Russia has managed to contain a massive diesel spill into a river in the Arctic, a spokeswoman for the emergencies ministry told AFP.

Environmentalists said the oil spill, which took place last May 29, was the worst such accident ever in the Arctic region.

Activists hold a candlelit remembrance outside Victoria Park in Hong Kong, after the annual vigil, that traditionally takes place in the park to mark the Tiananmen Square crackdown, was banned on public health grounds because coronavirus.

Activists of the Socialist Unity Centre of India shout slogans in Ahmedabad in solidarity with protests against the recent killing of George Floyd.

A black man and a white woman hold their hands up in front of police officers in downtown Long Beach during a protest against the death of George Floyd, an unarmed black man who died while being arrested and pinned to the ground by the knee of a Minneapolis police officer.

Protests sweeping the United States over the death of George Floyd reverberated on the other side of the globe when thousands marched in solidarity on the streets of New Zealand.

Police officers are seen amid tear gas as protesters continue to rally against the death in Minneapolis police custody of George Floyd, in Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Cloud iridescence, an optical phenomenon where light is diffracted through water droplets, is pictured at the edge of some clouds before a summer thunderstorm over Bangkok.

Riot police try to control pro-democracy supporters at a rally in Causeway Bay district, Hong Kong. Protesters and police face each other during a rally after a black man died in police custody hours after a bystander's video showed an officer kneeling on the handcuffed man's neck, even after he pleaded that he could not breathe and had stopped moving.

Starting from 25 May, the Frecce Tricolori will perform every day in the skies throughout Italy as part of the 74th anniversary celebrations of the founding of the Italian Republic and to pay homage to the areas most affected by the coronavirus.

Saudi Arabia's holy city of Mecca during the early hours of Eid al-Fitr, the Muslim holiday which starts at the conclusion of the holy fasting month of Ramadan.

Firefighters spray water on the wreckage of a Pakistan International Airlines aircraft after it crashed into a residential area in Karachi.

Indigenous leader Kretan Kaingang wears a face mask with a hashtag that reads in Portuguese: "Get out Bolsonaro" during a protest demanding the impeachment of President Jair Bolsonaro outside the National Congress in Brasilia, Brazil, Thursday, May 21, As Brazil careens toward a full-blown public health emergency and economic meltdown, opponents have filed a request for Bolsonaro's impeachment based on his mishandling of the new coronavirus pandemic.

People wait in line to undergo the coronavirus tests while keeping distance from each other at a makeshift clinic set up on a playground in Incheon, South Korea.

Firefighters fighting a fire at a plastics factory in front of a huge cloud of smoke in Ladenburg, Germany. Ugandan academic Stella Nyanzi reacts as police officers detain her for protesting against the way that government distributes the relief food and lockdown situation in Kampala.

Crematory workers using protective gear are pictured at a crematory in Nezahualcoyotl during the outbreak of the coronavirus disease COVID , on the outskirts of Mexico City, Mexico.

Healthcare workers, nurses and doctors, unified under the movement called "Take Care of Care" wearing face masks protest against the Belgian authorities' management of the coronavirus crisis, at the MontLegia CHC Hospital.

A girl watches over goats on the banks of the Dal Lake during rainfall in Srinagar. Life-size cardboard figures with photos of football fans are positioned on the stands of Borussia Moenchengladbach's football stadium for their next game, which will be played without spectators, due to the coronavirus outbreak in Germany.

Iraqi protesters gather on the Al-Jumhuriyah bridge in the capital Baghdad during an anti-government demonstration.

Modest anti-government rallies resumed in some Iraqi cities Sunday, clashing with security forces and ending months of relative calm just days after Prime Minister Mustafa Kadhemi's government came to power.

The protests first erupted in Baghdad and Shiite-majority southern cities in October, demanding an end to corruption and unemployment and an overhaul of the ruling class.

A man wearing a mask walks his dog in Madrid during the hours allowed by the government to exercise. Spain's two biggest cities, Madrid and Barcelona, will not enter the next phase out of coronavirus lockdown along with many other regions next week.

A policeman uses his baton to push a resident breaking rules, during an extended nationwide lockdown to slow down the spread of coronavirus in Ahmedabad, India.

Enter your email address Continue Continue Please enter an email address Email address is invalid Fill out this field Email address is invalid Email already exists.

I would like to receive morning headlines Monday - Friday plus breaking news alerts by email. Update newsletter preferences.

Support free-thinking journalism and subscribe to Independent Minds. Comments Share your thoughts and debate the big issues.

Join the discussion. Please be respectful when making a comment and adhere to our Community Guidelines. Create a commenting name to join the debate Submit.

Mickiewicz was now beginning to assume the role of prophet and seer. For the reproof and instruction of his fellow-countrymen he composed his Books of the Polish Nation and of the Polish Pilgrimage, a mystical work, written in biblical prose, and intended to bring comfort and harmony to the distracted exiles.

In Paris also, in the course of about fourteen months , he wrote Pan Tadeusz, his greatest poem—and with insignificant exceptions his last.

The story of Mickiewicz's closing years may be passed [pg xiii] over very briefly. In he married; his wife was subject to attacks of insanity, and all his later life was saddened by the struggle with misfortune and poverty.

His lectures as holder of this chair are the only literary work of great importance that he produced during this last period of his life.

Soon after the completion of Pan Tadeusz he had become absorbed by a religious mysticism that caused him to turn entirely aside from poetry.

In he fell under the influence of Andrzej Towianski, a teacher who announced himself as the prophet of a new religion.

His acceptance and promulgation of a doctrine which was pronounced heretical by the Catholic Church, and which inculcated a religious reverence for Napoleonic traditions, made it impossible for the French government to retain his services in a government institution, and in he was deprived of his professorship.

The accession to power of Napoleon III. In he journeyed to Constantinople, wishing to aid in the war against Russia, and there he died of the cholera.

His remains, first laid to rest in Paris, were transferred in to the cathedral at Cracow. Pan Tadeusz was not the result of a momentary inspiration, but grew gradually under the author's hand.

I have already [pg xiv] jotted down a thousand verses. Later, Mickiewicz threw back the time of his action to the autumn of and the spring of ; thus, by giving his poem a political background in the invasion of Russia by Napoleon, he transformed his village idyl into a national epic.

The Monk Robak, or Jacek Soplica, and not his commonplace son Thaddeus, now became the real hero of the poem. With the character of this person the description of Jacek Soplica's early years agrees as closely as his name.

Mickiewicz even mentions his own kindred as the ancestral enemies of the Soplicas page Yet one of that hated family he now made the hero of his greatest poem.

By introducing him in the guise of Father Robak, repentant and striving to atone for past misdeeds through heroic service to his country, he infused into his poem a [pg xv] romantic charm.

The mystery surrounding this figure connects Pan Tadeusz , an epic that is truly classic in its dignified elevation and restraint of feeling, with Konrad Wallenrod , a romantic tale conceived in the spirit of Byronic passion.

In the work of Mickiewicz as a whole two characteristics predominate: a great intensity of feeling, which sometimes sinks into sentimentality, and at others rises into lyric fervour; and a wonderful truth, not only to the general impressions of his experience, but to the actual concrete facts of it, even to such trifles as the names of persons and places.

Thus The Forefathers, despite all its fantastic elements, reproduces many incidents in which the poet himself was concerned.

Furthermore, in certain works, as in his early tale Grazyna , Mickiewicz had shown a wonderful ability suddenly to detach himself from passing currents of emotion and to rise into regions of Olympian calm, giving to his work a classic, rounded completeness worthy of Grecian art.

All these aspects of his genius are present in Pan Tadeusz. Echoes of the poet's personal emotion are heard in Jacek's tale of his passion for Eva; and an ardent love of country permeates the poem and breaks out again and again with lyric force.

On the other hand the book is faithful to reality in its picture of Lithuanian manners and customs; the great romantic poet is at the same time the first realistic novelist of Poland.

Petersburg from the famous Silbermann. The poet sees the ludicrous side of the Warden, the Chamberlain, the Seneschal, and the other Don Quixotes who fill his pages, and yet he loves them with the most tender affection.

In his descriptions of external nature—of the Lithuanian forests or of the scene around Soplicowo on the moonlight night just before the foray—Mickiewicz shows a genius for throwing a glamour of poetic beauty over the face of common things such as has never been surpassed.

Finally, the whole poem is perfect in its proportions; from its homely beginning, with pictures of rural simplicity and old-fashioned hospitality, it swells into rustic grandeur in the panorama of the hunt, and at last reaches the most poignant tragedy in the scene about the death-bed of Jacek Soplica: then, lest the impression should be one of total sadness, the narrative concludes with the magnificent epilogue of the last two books, full of hopes of rescue for Poland, full of gaiety and courage.

A large epic calm pervades the whole. This brief introduction may fitly close with some verses that Mickiewicz wrote as an epilogue for Pan Tadeusz , but which he never finally revised and which were never printed during his lifetime.

Since his death [pg xvii] they have most frequently been inserted as a prologue to the poem rather than as an epilogue. For wherever we trod, terror went before us, and in every neighbour we found an enemy; at last they have bound us in chains, firmly and closely, and they bid us give up the ghost as quickly as may be.

For the nation is in such anguish that even Valour, when he turns his gaze on its torture, can do naught but wring the hands.

Thou wast so lately laid in the grave. No man has the strength to speak of thee! When the world envies their present fortune they will [pg xix] have leisure to hear of the past!

Then they will weep over the fate of their fathers, and then those tears will not soil their cheeks. That land will ever remain holy and pure as first love; undisturbed by the remembrance of errors, not undermined by the deceitfulness of hopes, and unchanged by the stream of events.

How everything there belonged to us, how I remember all that surrounded us, from the linden that with its magnificent crown afforded shade to the children of the whole village, down to every stream and stone; how every cranny of the land was familiar to us, as far as the houses of our neighbours—the boundary line of our realm!

For who dwelt there? Mother, brothers, [pg xx] kindred, good neighbours! When one of them passed away, how tenderly did they speak of him!

How many memories, what long-continued sorrow, in that land where a servant is more devoted to his master than in other countries a wife to her husband; where a soldier sorrows longer over his weapons than here a son over his father; where they weep longer and more sincerely over a dog than here the people weep for a hero!

Vilna on our maps; Wilno is the Polish spelling. English readers are fortunate in possessing an excellent account of the life and writings of Mickiewicz in the work by Miss Monica M.

Brückner, Geschichte der polnischen Litteratur Leipzig, , p. The principal characters in Pan Tadeusz are as follows.

The approximate pronunciation of each proper name is indicated in brackets, according to the system used in Webster's New International Dictionary.

Polish names in this book are generally given in their original spelling, except that the diacritical marks used on many letters in the Polish alphabet are here omitted, and that on or om and en or em are substituted for the nasal vowels indicated in Polish by a with a cedilla and e with a cedilla.

Yet the Polish title of the poem, Pan Tadeusz, has been left unchanged, as it has become widely known through works on Poland, and as a suitable substitute for it is hard to find: Pan Thaddeus would be a displeasing hybrid.

The few Russian names that occur are given as though transliterated from the Russian, not in the Polish form: Suvorov , not Suwarow.

But Pani may be used of unmarried women of high social station; it is regularly applied to Telimena, and once, by the reverent Gerwazy, even to little Zosia page As an aid to the pronunciation of the minor names the following directions may be of some service:—.

Accent all names on the penult, or next to the last syllable. W is ordinarily pronounced as v , but before surd consonants it has the sound f.

Ch is pronounced as in German, but before vowels it need not be distinguished from the English h. The Polish l has two values, one of which resembles the English l , while the other the crossed l approximates to the English w.

In the same circumstances z and zi are pronounced somewhat like zh. The Polish alphabet also contains a dotted z here represented by plain z which is pronounced like zh.

Dz before i and dzi before a vowel are pronounced somewhat like English j in jet. C is ordinarily pronounced like ts , but c before i and ci before a vowel are sounded somewhat like ch.

But on i as a diacritical sign, modifying a preceding sibilant, see the preceding paragraph. These rules, it must be said, are incomplete and inexact to a degree that will shock any person with a scientific knowledge of Polish pronunciation.

In the present instance brevity seemed of more importance than strict accuracy. Return of the young master—A first meeting in the chamber, a second at table—The Judge's weighty lecture on courtesy—The Chamberlain's political remarks on fashions—Beginning of the quarrel over Bobtail and Falcon—Lamentations of the Seneschal—The last Apparitor—Glance at the political conditions of Lithuania and Europe at this period.

Lithuania , my country, thou art like health; how much thou shouldst be prized only he can learn who has lost thee.

To-day thy beauty in all its splendour I see and describe, for I yearn for thee. As by miracle thou didst restore me to health in my childhood—when, offered by my weeping mother to thy protection, I raised my dead eyelids, and could straightway walk to the threshold of thy shrine to thank God for the life returned me—so by miracle thou wilt return us to the bosom of our country.

Meanwhile bear my grief-stricken soul to those wooded hills, to those green meadows stretched far and wide along the blue Niemen; to those fields painted with various [pg 2] grain, gilded with wheat, silvered with rye; where grows the amber mustard, the buckwheat white as snow, where the clover glows with a maiden's blush, where all is girdled as with a ribbon by a strip of green turf on which here and there rest quiet pear-trees.

Amid such fields years ago, by the border of a brook, on a low hill, in a grove of birches, stood a gentleman's 3 mansion, of wood, but with a stone foundation; the white walls shone from afar, the whiter since they were relieved against the dark green of the poplars that sheltered it against the winds of autumn.

The dwelling-house was not large, but it was spotlessly neat, and it had a mighty barn, and near it were three stacks of hay that could not be contained beneath the roof; one could see that the neighbourhood was rich and fertile.

And one could see from the number of sheaves that up and down the meadows shone thick as stars—one could see from the number of ploughs turning up early the immense tracts of black fallow land that evidently belonged to the mansion, and were tilled well like garden beds, that in that house dwelt plenty and order.

The gate wide-open proclaimed to passers-by that it was hospitable, and invited all to enter as guests.

A young gentleman had just entered in a two-horse carriage, and, after making a turn about the yard, he stopped before the porch and descended; his horses, left to themselves, slowly moved towards the gate, nibbling the grass.

The mansion was deserted, for the porch doors were barred and the bar fastened with a pin. The traveller did not run to make inquiries at the farmhouse but opened the door and ran into the mansion, for he was eager to greet it.

It was long since he had seen the house, for he had been studying in a distant [pg 3] city and had at last finished his course.

He ran in and gazed with eager emotion upon the ancient walls, his old friends. He sees the same furniture, the same hangings with which he had loved to amuse himself from babyhood, but they seemed less beautiful and not so large as of old.

And the same portraits hung upon the walls. Here Kosciuszko, 4 in his Cracow coat, 5 with his eyes raised to heaven, held his two-handed sword; such was he when on the steps of the altar he swore that with this sword he would drive the three powers from Poland or himself would fall upon it.

Farther on sat Rejtan, 6 in Polish costume, mourning the loss of liberty; in his hands he held a knife with the point turned against his breast, and before him lay Phaedo and The Life of Cato.

Still farther on Jasinski, 7 a fair and melancholy youth, and his faithful comrade Korsak 8 stand side by side on the entrenchments of Praga, on heaps of Muscovites, hewing down the enemies of their country—but around them Praga is already burning.

He recognised even the tall old musical clock in its wooden case near the chamber door, and with childish joy he pulled at the string, in order to hear Dombrowski's old mazurka.

He ran about the whole house and searched for the room that had been his own when he was a child, ten years before. He entered, drew back, and surveyed the walls with astonished eyes: could this room be a woman's lodgings?

Who could live here? His old uncle was unmarried, and his aunt had dwelt for years in St. Could that be the housekeeper's chamber?

A piano? On it music and books; all abandoned in careless confusion: sweet disorder! Not old could the hands have been that had so abandoned them!

There too, a white gown, freshly taken from the hook to put on, was spread upon the arm of a chair. In the windows were pots of fragrant flowers: geraniums, asters, gillyflowers, and violets.

The traveller stepped to one of the windows—a new marvel was before him. On the bank of the brook, in a spot once overgrown with nettles, was a tiny garden intersected by paths, full of clumps of English grass and of mint.

The slender wooden fence, fashioned into a monogram, shone with ribbons of gay daisies. Evidently the beds had but just been sprinkled; there stood the tin watering-pot full of water, but the fair gardener could nowhere be seen.

She had only now departed; the little gate, freshly touched, was still trembling; near the gate could be seen on the sand the print of a small foot that had been without shoe or stocking—on the fine dry sand, white as snow; the print was clear but light; you guessed that it was left in quick running by the tiny feet of some one who scarce touched the ground.

The traveller stood long in the window gazing and musing, breathing in the fragrance of the flowers. He bent down his face to the violet plants; he followed the paths with his curious eyes and again gazed on the tiny footprints; he kept thinking of them and trying to guess whose they were.

By chance he raised his eyes, and there on the wall stood a young girl—her white garment hid her slender form only to the breast, leaving bare her shoulders and her swan's neck.

Such attire a Lithuanian maiden is wont to wear only early in the day; in such she is never seen by men.

So, though there was no witness near, she had folded her arms on [pg 5] her breast, in order to add a veil to her low garment.

Her hair, not spread out in loose ringlets but twisted in little knots and wrapped in small white curl-papers, marvellously adorned her head, for in the sunlight it shone like a crown on the image of a saint.

Her face could not be seen, for she had turned towards the meadow, and with her eyes was seeking some one far off, below her. She caught sight of him, laughed, and clapped her hands; like a white bird she flew from the wall to the turf, and flashed through the garden, over stiles and flowers, and over a board supported on the wall of the chamber; before the young man was aware, she had flown in through the window, glittering, swift, and light as a moonbeam.

Humming to herself, she seized the gown and ran to the mirror; suddenly she saw the youth, and the gown fell from her hands and her face grew pale with fright and wonder.

The face of the traveller flamed with a rosy blush, as a cloud when it is touched with the morning glow; the modest youth half closed his eyes and hid them with his hand; he wished to speak and ask for pardon, but only bowed and stepped back.

The maiden uttered a pitiful, indistinct cry, like a child frightened in its sleep; the traveller looked up in alarm, but she was there no longer; he departed in confusion and felt the loud beating of his heart; he knew not whether this strange meeting should cause him amusement or shame or joy.

Meanwhile in the farmhouse they had not failed to notice that some new guest had driven up before the porch.

They had already taken the horses to the stable and already, as befits an honourable house, had given them generously of oats and hay, for the Judge 9 was never willing to adopt the new fashion of sending a guest's [pg 6] horse to a Jew's inn.

The servants had not come out to welcome the traveller, but do not think that in the Judge's mansion service was careless; the servants were waiting until the Seneschal 10 should attire him, who now behind the mansion was arranging for the supper.

He took the place of the master, and in his absence was wont himself to welcome and entertain guests, being a distant relative of the master and a friend of the house.

Seeing the guest, he stealthily made his way to the farmhouse, for he could not come out to greet the stranger in a homespun dressing-gown; there he put on as quickly as he might his Sunday garment, made ready since early morning, for since morning he had known that at supper he should sit with a multitude of guests.

The Seneschal recognised the traveller from afar, spread out his arms, and with a cry embraced and kissed him. Then began a hurried, confused discourse, in which they were eager to tell the events of many years in a few brief words, mingled, as the tale went forward, with queries, exclamations, and new greetings.

When the Seneschal had asked his fill of questions, at the very last he told the story of that day. Your uncle is thinking of soon celebrating your marriage.

You have a wide choice: at our house a numerous company has for days been gathering for the session of the territorial court, to conclude our ancient quarrel with the Count.

The young men have gone to the wood to amuse themselves shooting, and the old men and the women are looking at the harvest near the wood, where they are doubtless awaiting the young men.

Come on, if you wish, and soon we shall meet your dear uncle, the Chamberlain, and the honoured ladies.

The Seneschal and Thaddeus walked along the road towards the wood and could not say enough to each other. The sun was approaching the end of his course in the sky and shone less strongly but more broadly than by day, all reddened, as the healthy face of a husbandman, when, after finishing his work in the fields, he returns to rest: already the gleaming circle was descending on the summit of the grove, and already the misty twilight, filling the tips and the branches of the trees, bound and, as it were, fused the whole forest into one mass, and the grove showed black like an immense building, and the sun red above it like a fire on the roof; then the sun sank; it still shone through the branches, as a candle through the chinks of window shutters; then it was extinguished.

And suddenly the scythes that were ringing far and wide among the grain, and the rakes that were being drawn over the meadow, became quiet and still; such were the orders of the Judge, on whose farm work closed with the day.

The whole company was just returning from the grove, gaily, but in order; first the little children with their tutor, then the Judge with the wife of the Chamberlain; beside them the Chamberlain, surrounded by his family; after the older people came the young ladies, with the young men beside them; the young ladies walked a half-step before the young men: so decorum bids.

Short were the greetings that the Judge bestowed upon his nephew. With dignity he offered him his hand to salute, and kissing him on the temple he gave him a hearty welcome; though out of regard for the guests he talked little with him, one could see from the tears that he quickly wiped away with the sleeve of his kontusz , 13 how he loved young Thaddeus.

After the master all, both men and beasts, were returning home together from the harvest fields and from the grove, from the meadows and from the pastures.

Here a flock of bleating sheep squeezed into the [pg 9] lane and raised a cloud of dust; behind them slowly stepped a herd of Tyrolese heifers with brazen bells; there the horses neighing rushed home from the freshly mown meadow.

All ran to the well, of which the wooden sweep ceaselessly creaked and filled the trough. The Judge, though wearied, and though surrounded by guests, did not neglect the weighty duties of his farm, but himself went to the well: at evening a farmer can best see how his stable prospers, and never entrusts that care to servants—for the Judge knew that the master's eye fattens the horse.

The Seneschal and Protazy the Apparitor 14 were standing in the hall, lanterns in hand, and were arguing with some warmth, for in the Seneschal's absence the Apparitor had secretly ordered the supper tables to be carried out from the mansion and to be set up hastily in the old castle of which the remains could be seen near the wood.

Why this transfer? The Seneschal made wry faces and begged the Judge's pardon; the Judge was amazed, but the thing had been done; it was already late and difficult to correct it; he preferred to make excuses to his guests and to lead them to the ruins.

On the way the Apparitor kept explaining to the Judge why he had altered his master's arrangements: on the farm no room was spacious enough for so many guests—and guests of such high station; in the castle the great hall was still well preserved, the vaulted roof was whole—to be sure one wall was cracked and the windows were without panes, but in summer that would do no harm; the nearness of the cellars was convenient for the servants.

So speaking, he winked at the Judge; it was evident from his mien that he had other, more important reasons, but concealed them.

The castle stood two thousand paces from the mansion, of stately architecture, and of imposing bulk, the ancestral home of the ancient house of the Horeszkos.

The owner had perished at the time of the disorders in the country; 15 the domain had been entirely ruined by the sequestrations of the government, by the carelessness of the guardians, and by the verdicts of the courts; part had fallen to distant relatives on the female side, the rest had been divided among the creditors.

No one wished to take the castle, for a simple gentleman could hardly afford the cost of maintaining it; but the Count, a rich young noble and a distant relative of the Horeszkos, when he became of age and returned home from his travels to live near by, took a fancy to the walls, explaining that they were of Gothic architecture, though the Judge from documents tried to convince him that the architect was from Wilno and not a Goth.

At all events the Count wished to have the castle, and suddenly the same desire seized the Judge, no one could tell why.

They began a suit in the district court, then in the court of appeal, before the Senate, again in the district court and before the governor's council; finally after great expense of money, and numerous decrees, the case returned again to the court of domains.

The Apparitor said rightly that in the hall of the castle there was room both for the gentlemen of the bar and for the invited guests.

This hall was as large as a refectory, and it had a vaulted roof supported on pillars, and a stone flooring; the walls were unadorned, but clean.

Upon them were fastened the horns of stags and roes, with inscriptions telling where and when these trophies had been obtained; there too were engraved the armorial bearings of the hunters, with the name of [pg 11] each written out in full; on the ceiling gleamed the Half-Goat, the arms of the Horeszkos.

The guests entered in order and stood about the table. The Chamberlain took his place at the head; this honour befitted him from his age and his office; advancing to it he bowed to the ladies, the old men, and the young men.

By him took his station a Bernardine monk, a collector of alms for his order, and next the Bernardine was the Judge.

The Bernardine pronounced a short grace in Latin, brandy was passed to the gentlemen; then all sat down, and silently and with relish they ate the cold Lithuanian salad of beet leaves.

Thaddeus, though a young man, by virtue of being a guest, had a seat at the head of the table, with the ladies, beside His Honour the Chamberlain; between him and his uncle there remained one empty place, which seemed to be awaiting some one.

The uncle often glanced at this place and then at the door, as though he were assured of some one's coming and desired it; and Thaddeus followed his uncle's glance to the door, and with him fixed his eyes on the empty seat.

Marvellous to relate, the places round about were occupied by maidens on whom a prince might have gazed without shame, all of them high born, and every one young and pretty; but Thaddeus kept looking at that spot where no one was sitting.

That place was a riddle; young people love riddles. Distraught, to his fair neighbour the Chamberlain's daughter he said only a few scattering words; he did not change her plate or fill her glass, and he did not entertain the young ladies with polite discourse such as would have shown his city breeding.

That one empty place allured him and dazzled him; it was no longer empty, for he had filled it with his [pg 12] thoughts. Over that place ran a thousand guesses, as after a rain, little toads hop hither and thither over a lonely meadow; among them one form was queen, like a water lily on a fair day raising its white brow above the surface of a lake.

The third course was being served. The Judge, throwing a sidelong glance at Thaddeus and adjusting somewhat the sleeves of his kontusz, poured out some Hungarian wine and spoke thus:—.

Of old, the young gentry went to the courts of the lords; I myself was for ten years a member of the household of the Wojewoda, 26 the father of His Honour the Chamberlain.

In my home his memory will ever be dear; each day do I pray God for his soul. If at his court I profited less than others, and since my return have been ploughing the fields at home, while others, more worthy of the regard of the Wojewoda, have since attained the highest offices in the land, at least this [pg 13] much I profited, that in my home no one will ever reproach me for failing to show respect or courtesy to all—and boldly do I say it, courtesy is not an easy science, nor one of slight account.

Not easy, for it is not confined to moving one's legs gracefully in bowing or to greeting with a smile each man one meets; for such fashionable courtesy seems to me that of a merchant, not that of old Poland, nor that of a true gentleman.

Courtesy should be extended to all, but for each it is different; for not without courtesy is the love of children for their parents, or the regard paid by a husband to his wife in society, or that of a master for his servants, and yet each sort of courtesy has its distinctive mark.

One must study long in order without mistake to pay to each his due respect. And our elders did study: in noble mansions the discourse furnished the listener a living history of his land, and the talk among the gentry formed the household annals of the county.

Thereby a brother gentleman was made to feel that all knew of him and did not esteem him lightly; so a gentleman kept a watch upon his own habits.

But to-day you must ask no man who he is or of what parents, with whom he has lived or what he has done. Every man enters where he will, so long as he be not a government spy or a beggar.

As Vespasian did not smell of money, 17 and cared not to know whence it came, from what hands or lands, so now they care not to know a man's family or habits.

It suffices that he be of full weight and that the stamp be seen upon him; thus men value friends as Jews value money.

While speaking thus, the Judge surveyed his guests in order; for though he always spoke fluently and with discretion, he knew that the youth of to-day are impatient, [pg 14] that they are bored by long speeches, even by the most eloquent.

But all were listening in deep silence; the Judge with his eye seemed to take counsel of the Chamberlain; the Chamberlain did not interrupt the speech by praise, but with a frequent nodding of his head he assented to it.

The Judge ceased speaking, the other with a nod begged him to continue. So the Judge filled the Chamberlain's beaker and his own cup, and spoke further:—.

And worthy of your especial attention is the courtesy that young men owe to the fair sex, above all when the distinction of family, and the generosity of fortune heighten inborn charms and talents.

Through courtesy is the path to the affections, and by it houses are joined in splendid union—thus thought our elders.

Here the Judge with a sudden turn of his head nodded at Thaddeus and bestowed on him a stern glance; it was evident that he had now reached the climax of his speech.

Thereupon the Chamberlain tapped his golden snuffbox and said:—. At present I know not whether the fashion changes even us old men, or whether the young men are better than before, but I see less cause of scandal.

Ah, I remember the times when on our fatherland there first descended the fashion of imitating the French; when [pg 15] suddenly brisk young gentlemen from foreign lands swarmed in upon us in a horde worse than the Nogai Tatars, abusing here, in our country, God, the faith of our fathers, our law and customs, and even our ancient garments.

Pitiable was it to behold the yellow-faced puppies, talking through their noses—and often without noses—stuffed with brochures and newspapers of various sorts, and proclaiming new faiths, laws, and toilets.

That rabble had a mighty power over minds, for when the Lord God sends punishment on a nation he first deprives its citizens of reason.

And so the wiser heads dared not resist the fops, and the whole nation feared them as some pestilence, for within itself it already felt the germs of disease.

They cried out against the dandies but took pattern by them; they changed faith, speech, laws, and costumes.

That was a masquerade, the licence of the Carnival season, after which was soon to follow the Lent of slavery. Everybody ran after him as after a buzzard; 18 they envied the house before the threshold of which the Cup-Bearer's son halted his two-wheeled chaise, which passed by the French name of cabriolet.

Within it sat two dogs instead of footmen, and on the box a German, lean as a board; his long legs, thin as hop-poles, were clad in stockings, and shoes with silver buckles; the tail of his wig was tied up in a sack.

The old men burst out laughing at that equipage, but the country boors crossed themselves, saying that a Venetian devil was travelling abroad in a German carriage.

To describe the [pg 16] son of the Cup-Bearer himself would be a long story; suffice it to say that he seemed to us an ape or a parrot in a great peruke, which he liked to compare to the Golden Fleece, and we to elf-locks.

Such at that time was the power of prejudice! The doctrine was ancient, the question was of its application. But at that time such general blindness prevailed that they did not believe the oldest things in the world if they did not read of them in a French newspaper.

The Cup-Bearer's son, despite equality, had taken the title of marquis. It is well known that titles come from Paris, and at that time the title of marquis was in fashion there; however, when in the course of years the fashion changed, this same marquis took the title of democrat; finally, with the changing fashion, under Napoleon, the democrat arrived from Paris as a baron; if he had lived longer, perhaps he would have shifted again, and instead of a baron would have called himself once more a democrat.

For Paris boasts of frequent changes of fashion, and whatever a Frenchman invents is dear to a Pole. For now Napoleon, a clever man and a swift, gives us no time to prate or to search for new fashions.

Now there is the thunder of arms, and the hearts of us old men exult that the renown of the Poles is spreading so widely throughout the world; glory is ours already, and so we shall soon again have our Republic.

From laurels always springs the tree of liberty. Only it is sad that for us the years drag on so long in idleness, and they are always so far away.

It is so long to wait! That is the affair of us Bernardines; why should we talk of that at supper?

Here there are laymen, whom such things do not concern. So speaking, he looked askance at a Muscovite guest who was sitting among the banqueters; this was Captain Rykov, an old soldier who was quartered in a village hard by, and whom the Judge for courtesy's sake had invited to the supper.

Rykov ate with a relish, and had been mixing little in the conversation, but at the mention of Warsaw he raised his head and said, with a Russian accent, and with a few slips of expression:—.

Ah, sir, you are always curious about [pg 18] Bonaparte, and are always eager to hear from Warsaw.

Ah, Fatherland! I am no spy, but I understand Polish. I feel it all, I understand! You are Poles, I am Russian; just now we are not fighting—there is an armistice, so we are eating and drinking together.

O, that Bonaparte is a rare bird! Now that Suvorov is gone maybe he will give us a drubbing. In our regiment we used to say, when we were marching against the French, that Bonaparte was a wizard 22 —well, so was Suvorov a wizard too, so there were tricks against tricks.

Once in battle, where did he disappear? To look for Bonaparte! But he changed himself into a fox, so Suvorov became a hound; so Bonaparte changed again into a cat; they started to claw each other, but Suvorov became a pony.

Here Rykov broke off and began to eat. At that moment the servant came in with the fourth course, and suddenly the side doors were opened.

A new guest, young and fair, came in; her sudden appearance, her beauty and her carriage, her toilet, all attracted the eye.

Everybody greeted her; evidently all except Thaddeus were acquainted with her. Her figure was fine and elegant, her bosom charming; her gown was of pink silk, low cut, and with short sleeves, [pg 19] the collar of lace.

In her hands she twirled a fan for mere pastime, for it was not hot; the gilded fan as it waved spread around it a dense shower of sparks.

Her head was like a milliner's model; the hair was frizzled and curled and intertwined with pink ribbons; amid them a diamond, half hidden from sight, shone like a star in the tail of a comet.

In a word it was a holiday toilet; several whispered that it was too elaborate for the country and for every day.

Though her skirt was short, the eye could not see her feet, for she ran very swiftly, or rather she glided, like the puppets that on the Festival of the Three Kings boys hidden in booths slide to and fro.

She ran in and, greeting all with a slight bow, was about to seat herself in the place reserved for her.

That was difficult, for there were no chairs for the guests, who were sitting in four rows on four benches; either a whole row must move or she must climb over the bench.

Skilfully she managed to squeeze in between two benches, and then between the table and the line of those seated at it she rolled on like a billiard ball.

In her course she brushed past our young man, and, catching a flounce on some one's knee, slipped a little, and in her distraction supported herself on the shoulder of Thaddeus.

Politely begging his pardon, she took her seat between him and his uncle, but she ate nothing; she only fanned herself, or twirled the handle of her fan, or adjusted her lace collar, or with a light touch of her hand smoothed her ringlets and the knots of bright ribbon among them.

This interruption of the conversation had lasted some four minutes. Meanwhile there had begun at the end of the table first gentle murmurs and then conversation in a subdued voice; the men were discussing their day's [pg 20] hunting.

Between the Assessor 23 and the Notary 24 there had arisen a stubborn and more and more noisy dispute over a bobtailed hound, in the ownership of which the Notary took pride, maintaining that this dog had caught the hare; while the Assessor was demonstrating, despite the arguments of the Notary, that that honour belonged to his own hound Falcon.

They asked the opinion of the others; so all in turn took sides either for Bobtail or for Falcon, some as experts, others as eyewitnesses.

Since both ends of the table were thus occupied, Thaddeus gazed intently at the unknown lady. He remembered that when he had first glanced at the place he had at once guessed for whom it was destined.

He blushed, and his heart beat faster than its wont. So he now beheld, the solution of the mystery upon which he had pondered.

So it had been ordained that by his side should sit that beauty whom he had seen in the twilight; to be sure she now seemed of taller stature, for she was in full dress, and costume may make one seem larger or smaller.

But the hair of the first had seemed short and of a bright golden colour, while this lady had long, curling, raven tresses.

The colour must have come from the sun's rays, which at evenfall shed a glow over everything. At that time he had not noticed the girl's face—she had vanished too quickly.

But thought is [pg 21] wont to guess a lovely face; he had imagined that surely she must have black eyes, a fair complexion, and lips as red as twin cherries; in his neighbour he found such a face, such eyes, and such lips.

In age perhaps there was the greatest difference; the little gardener had seemed to him a young girl, this lady was already of ripe years.

But youth never asks beauty for its baptismal certificate; to a young man every woman is young, to a lad every beauty seems of his own age, and to an innocent boy every sweetheart seems a maiden.

Thaddeus, though he was now almost twenty years of age, and from childhood had dwelt in Wilno, a large city, had been under the charge of a priest, who looked after him and brought him up in the rules of strict old-fashioned virtue.

Therefore Thaddeus brought home to his native heath a pure soul, a lively imagination, and an innocent heart, but at the same time no small desire to sow his wild oats.

He had some time ago resolved that he would permit himself to enjoy in the country his long forbidden liberty; he knew that he was handsome, he felt himself young and vigorous; and as an inheritance from his parents he had received health and good spirits.

His name was Soplica; all the Soplicas, as is well known, are large, strong, powerful men, apt at the soldier's trade, but less diligent over their books.

Thaddeus had not degenerated from his forebears; he rode well on horseback and walked well; he was not dull, but he had made little progress in his studies, though his uncle had spared nothing on his education.

He liked better to shoot, or to practise with a sabre; he knew that they had intended to fit him for the army, that his father in his will had expressed this desire; while sitting in school he yearned constantly for the [pg 22] sound of the drum.

But his uncle had suddenly changed his first intentions, and had sent him word to come home and to marry and take over the farming; he had promised to give him at first a little village, and later the whole estate.

All these virtues and good qualities of Thaddeus had attracted the gaze of his neighbour, an observant woman.

She had measured his tall and shapely form, his strong shoulders, his broad chest, and she looked into his face, on which a blush rose as often as the young man met her eyes.

For he had already entirely recovered from his first timidity, and looked on her with a bold glance, in which fire blazed; even so did she gaze on him, and their four pupils glowed opposite one another as do candles at the Advent mass.

She started a conversation with him in French. Thaddeus had returned from town, from school: so she asked his opinions about new books and authors, and from his answers derived new questions; she went so far as to speak of painting, of music, of dancing—even of sculpture!

She proved herself equally familiar with the pencil, with tunes, and with books, until Thaddeus was petrified by so much learning, and feared that he might become the butt of ridicule, and stammered like a little lad before his teacher.

Luckily the teacher was beautiful and lenient; his neighbour guessed the cause of his perturbation, and shifted the talk to less deep and difficult subjects, to the cares and troubles of existence in the country, and how one must amuse oneself, and how divide the time in order to make village life gay and pleasant.

Thaddeus answered more boldly, and things went better; in a half-hour they were already fast friends, they even started jests and small [pg 23] quarrels.

Finally she placed before him three little balls of bread, three persons to select from; he chose the nearest.

The two daughters of the Chamberlain frowned at this; his neighbour laughed, but she did not tell him whom that happy ball was meant to signify.

At the other end of the table they were amusing themselves quite differently, for there the adherents of Falcon, suddenly gathering strength, descended pitilessly on the party of Bobtail.

Mighty was the strife; they had not yet eaten the last courses; standing up and drinking, the two factions wrangled.

But most terribly was the Notary ruffled—just like a blackcock; when he had once begun, he poured forth his speech without a pause, and adorned it most effectively by his gestures.

The Notary, Pan Bolesta, had once been a lawyer; they called him the preacher, because he was over fond of gestures. Now he had placed his hands on his sides, extending his elbows backward, and from under his armpits he was thrusting forward his fingers and long nails, thereby representing two leashes of hounds.

He was just concluding his speech:—. The Assessor and I let them go at once, at the very same time, as if the two triggers on a double-barrelled gun had been pressed by one finger.

Falcon rushed forward, a fleet dog, but with a poor head; he got the start of Bobtail by so much, a finger's breadth; I knew that he would miss.

The hare was no common rogue; he made as if straight for the [pg 24] field, and after him the pack of hounds.

The rogue of a hare I Once he knew that the dogs were in a bunch, pst! The dogs after him, zip! Thaddeus and his neighbour, suddenly startled right in the middle of a conversation by this outburst, involuntarily withdrew their heads from each other, like treetops tied together, when the storm parts them; their hands, which had been lying close together under the table, quickly drew apart, and their two faces were clothed with a single blush.

So Thaddeus once more expressed his pleasure that so handsome a dog had no fault; regretted that he had seen him only as he was returning from the wood, and that he had not had time to appreciate all his good points.

At this the Assessor trembled, dropped his wine-glass from his hand, and levelled at Thaddeus the glance of a basilisk.

The Assessor was less noisy and less given to gestures than the Notary, thinner and shorter; but he was terrible at masquerade, ball, or village diet, for they said of him that he had a sting in his tongue.

He [pg 25] could make up such witty jests that you might have had them printed in the almanac; they were all so malicious and pointed.

He had formerly been a man of property, but he had entirely squandered his inheritance from his father, and his brother's estate as well, through cutting a figure in high society; now he had entered the service of the government, in order to be of some importance in the district.

He was very fond of hunting, both for the sport of it and because the peal of the horn and the sight of the circle of beaters recalled to him the days of his youth, when he had kept many hunters and many famous hounds.

Of his whole kennel but two dogs remained, and now they wanted to belittle the glory of one of these!

So he approached, and, slowly stroking his side whiskers, said with a laugh—but it was a laugh full of poison:—.

A tail is likewise a great help to a hound in running. And do you, sir, regard the lack of one as a proof of excellence? However, we may refer the matter to the judgment of your aunt.

Though Pani Telimena has been living in the capital, and has only recently been visiting our neighbourhood, yet she knows more about hunting than do young sportsmen: for knowledge comes of itself with years.

Thaddeus, upon whom this thunderstorm had unexpectedly descended, arose in confusion, and for some moments said nothing, but looked upon his rival more and more terribly and sternly; at that moment by great good luck the Chamberlain sneezed twice.

The snuffbox was of gold, set with diamonds, and in the middle of it was [pg 26] a portrait of King Stanislaw.

All became silent, no one dared open his lips. He spoke:—. Apparitor, call the case for to-morrow in the field!

To-morrow the Count too will be here with all his hunting train, and you, my neighbour Judge, will ride out with us, and Pani Telimena, and the young ladies and gentlemen; in a word we will form a great official hunting party, and the Seneschal, too, will not deny us his companionship.

So saying he offered his snuffbox to the old man. The Seneschal had been sitting at the corner among the hunters; he had been listening with closed eyes, but had said not a word, although the young men had often inquired his opinion, for no one understood hunting better than he.

He kept silent, weighed in his fingers the pinch of snuff that he had taken from the box, and meditated long before he finally used it; he sneezed until the whole room echoed, and shaking his head, he said with a bitter smile:—.

What would the hunters of old times say of this, if they should see that amid so many gentlemen, in so large a gathering, disputes over a hound's tail had to be debated?

What would old Rejtan say of this were he to [pg 27] come to life again? He would go back to Lachowicze and lay himself in his grave.

What would the old wojewoda Niesiolowski 26 say, a man who still has the finest kennel in the world, and maintains in lordly wise two hundred hunters, and who has a hundred waggon-loads of nets in his castle of Woroncza, and yet for so many years has been abiding like a monk within his house?

No one can persuade him to accept an invitation to hunt; he refused even Bialopiotrowicz 27 himself! For what would he capture at your hunts?

It would be fine glory, if such a gentleman, in accordance with the present fashion, should ride out against rabbits! In my time, sir, in hunter's language, the boar, the bear, the elk, the wolf were known as noble beasts, but beasts without tusks, horns, or claws were left for hired servants or farm labourers.

No gentleman would ever consent to take in hand a musket that had been put to shame by having small shot sprinkled in it! To be sure they kept hounds, for when they were returning from a hunt it might happen that some wretched hare would start up from beneath a steed; then they let loose the pack at it for sport, and the little lads chased it on ponies before the eyes of their parents, who hardly deigned to look on such a chase, much less to quarrel over it!

So I beg that Your Honour the Chamberlain will deign to recall your commands, and will forgive me that I cannot ride to such a hunting party, and never will set foot in one!

My name is Hreczecha, and since the days of King Lech 28 no Hreczecha has ever ridden out after hares. Here the laughter of the young men drowned the speech of the Seneschal.

They rose from the table; the Chamberlain moved first; this honour befitted him from his [pg 28] age and his office; as he advanced he bowed to the ladies, the old men, and the young men.

2 thoughts on “Pan Tadeusz

  1. Ich entschuldige mich, aber meiner Meinung nach sind Sie nicht recht. Es ich kann beweisen. Schreiben Sie mir in PM, wir werden reden.

Hinterlasse eine Antwort

Deine E-Mail-Adresse wird nicht veröffentlicht. Erforderliche Felder sind markiert *